قاموس المصطلحات الصيدلانية
Breakdown of a chemical by processes other than living organisms, such as photodegradation and chemical reactions (e.g. hydrolysis).
The amount of a substance that actually enters into the body, usually expressed as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg).
The process whereby a substance moves from outside the body into the body.
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
The amount of a chemical to which a person can be exposed each day over a long period of time (usually lifetime) without suffering harmful effects.
An important chemical in the body having physiological functions, including the neurotransmission of electrical impulses across synapses of nerve endings.
An enzyme present in nervous tissue, muscle, and red blood cells that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. It is professional society for industrial hygienists that recommends safety and health guidelines.
The movement of a substance across a membrane requiring energy.
The amount of a substance administered or received over a very short period of time (minutes or hours), usually within 24 hours.
An effect that occurs almost immediately (hours/days) after a single or brief exposure to a toxic agent. Generally, acute effects will be evident within 14 days.
see Acceptable Daily Intake
The process of attracting and holding a substance to a surface. For example, a substance may adsorb onto a soil particle.
Adverse Reactions to Drug Report
A report which is voluntarily submitted by physicians to the FDA after a drug has been approved and in use.
Aerosols are airborne particulates. They may be solids or liquid droplets.
An immune hypersensitivity reaction of body tissues to allergens that can affect the skin (urticaria), respiratory tract (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (vomiting and nausea) or produce a systemic circulatory response (anaphylactic response).
The air sacs at the ends of the tracheo-bronchial tree in which gases are exchanged between inhaled air and the pulmonary capillary blood.
The surrounding environment. This can refer to ambient air, ambient water, or ambient soil.
A test for mutagenesis using the bacterium, Salmonella typhimurium.
A condition in which there is reduced or impaired red blood cells or hemoglobin resulting in an inadequate capacity of the blood to transport oxygen to body tissues.
Any deviation from an exact multiple of the haploid number of chromosomes. This may involve missing or extra chromosomes or parts of chromosomes.
An insufficient (below normal) supply of oxygen in the body tissues.
An interaction between two chemicals in which one decreases the expected toxic effect of the other.
An antibody is a protein molecule (immunoglobulin with a unique amino acid sequence) that only interacts with a specific or closely related foreign substances (antigen). The antibody is induced (a response of the immune system) as a result of prior exposure to the antigen.
Neurological effects resulting from the blockage of acetylcholine which transmits impulses across nerve junctions.
A remedy for counteracting a poison.
A relatively non-toxic gas that in high concentrations in the air results in insufficient oxygen which can cause hypoxia.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. It is a federal agency responsible for emergency response to chemical spills and assessment of health effects of hazardous waste sites.
An immune response that recognizes the constituents of the body's own cells as foreign and thus induces hypersensitivity to its own tissues.
Average Daily Intake
The amount of a chemical to which a person consumes over a period of a day. It is determined by multiplying typical concentration of the chemical in drinking water, air, and food by
an average daily intake factor such as 2 liters of water per day.
A tumor that grows only at the site of origin; and does not invade adjacent tissues or metastasize. It is generally treatable.
Systematic error that may be introduced in sampling by selecting or encouraging one outcome over another.
The build-up of a substance in a biological organism such that the level in the organism is greater than in environmental source of the substance. same as Bioconcentration.
The metabolic process whereby a parent substance is chemically changed to a daughter substance with enhanced biological activity.
A laboratory study used to determine the ability of a substance to produce a particular biological effect.
The physical and/or biological state of a substance rendering it capable of being absorbed into the body.
Breakdown of a chemical into smaller less complex molecules by microorganisms in environmental media (e.g., soil, water, sediment).
The time required to eliminate one-half the quantity of a substance from the body.
Indicators of events occurring in biologic systems due to a xenobiotic. The types of indicators are exposure, effects, or susceptibility.
Conversion of a chemical from one form to another by a biological organism.
The concentration of a substance which has accumulated in the body.
The tissue within the internal open space of bones (e.g., shaft of long bones) in which the blood-forming elements exist.
The very small branches of the tracheo-bronchial tree of the respiratory tract which terminate in the alveoli.
An uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells, creating a tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasis) to distant organs.
Cancer Slope Factor
A key risk assessment parameter derived by the EPA. It is an estimate of the probability that an individual will develop cancer if exposed to a specified amount of chemical (mg/kg) every day for a lifetime.
A compound which is capable of causing cancer.
The ability of a substance to cause cancer.
The complex process whereby normal body cells are transformed to cancer cells.
A type of epidemiology study to investigate the cause of the toxicity. It compares the exposure histories of humans who have a particular toxic effect with that of normal individuals.
The maximum allowable concentration of a chemical in the workplace for a specific period of time (usually 15 minutes).
The change of a cell from one form to another. The term is generally used to denote the change from normal to malignant.
Neurological effects resulting from the transmission by acetylcholine of impulses across synaptic junctions between nerves.
A liver condition in which excretion of bile salts via the bile duct is inhibited resulting in bile salts backing up into liver cells.
An analytic method to separate and identify the components of a complex mixture by the differential movement through a two-phase system. The movement is effected by a flow of a liquid or a gas (mobile) phase, based on the physicochemical principles of adsorption, partition, ion exchange, exclusion, or a combination of these principles.
One of a group of structures that form in the nucleus of a cell during cell division. Chromosomes, bearing the DNA, carry the genetic code for the organism.
Changes in chromosome structure.
Substance administered or received gradually over a long period of time (months to years).
An effect that either shows up a long time after an exposure (the latency period) or an effect that results from a long term (chronic) exposure.
A chronic condition of the liver in which liver cells are replaced by fibrous cells.
The central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
An epidemiology study in which a cohort (group) of individuals with exposure to a chemical and a cohort without exposure are followed over time to compare disease occurrence.
A metabolic process in which chemical groups are attached to foreign substances in the body, usually making the conjugated chemical more water soluble and easier to eliminate from the body.
A group of animals or humans in a study that are treated the same as the exposed groups but without receiving the specific exposure.
The transparent front surface of the eye.
Direct chemical action that results in irreversible damage at the site of contact. It is manifested by ulceration, necrosis, and scar formation.
The joining together of atoms that results from sharing electrons.
Consumer Product Safety Commission. It is a federal agency responsible for protecting the public from toxins and other hazards present in consumer products.
A type of epidemiology study that tests for the prevalence of a disease or clinical parameter among one or more exposed groups (e.g., the prevalence of respiratory conditions among furniture makers).
1/100th of a gram.
The loss of the myelin sheath (insulation) around a nerve.
Dermal Sensitization Test
An assay for immune hypersensitivity of the skin.
Toxicity of the skin which can range from mild irritation to corrosivity, hypersensitivity, and skin cancer. It can result from direct contact or internal distribution of the xenobiotic to the skin.
A metabolic process whereby a parent substance is changed to a daughter product (metabolite) that has lessened toxicity.
The term used to describe the kinetics of a substance in the body. It encompasses absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a chemical.
Movement of a substance from the site of entry to other parts of the body.
Deoxyribonucleic acid. The very large molecules in the nucleus of the cell, that carry the genetic information.
Dominant Lethal Assay Test
A mutagenicity test that can detect heritable dominant lethal mutations present in the sperm as the result of exposure to a substance.
The determination of quantity of a substance received that incorporates the size, frequency, and duration of doses (e.g., 10 mg every 8 hours for 5 days).
The amount of a substance received at one time. Dose is usually expressed as administered or absorbed dose (e.g., milligrams material/kilogram of body weight).
The relation between dose levels and associated effects.
A graphical representation of the quantitative relationship between doses of a substance and specific biological effects.
Department of Transportation. A federal agency responsible for the safe shipment of toxic chemicals and other hazardous materials.
The test for eye irritation in which the test substance is placed on the eyes of white rabbits and observed for 72 hours.
An abnormal susceptibility or sensitivity to a drug.
The unusual ability to endure, without effect, a quantity of a drug that would normally produce biological activity.
A term referring to the general environment.
The toxic effects on environmental organisms other than humans.
Effective dose 50%. The estimated dose that causes some specific effect (usually desirable) for 50% of the population.
Effective dose 99%. The estimated dose that causes some specific effect (usually desirable) for 99% of the population.
The retention of fluid in an organ or in the body.
The discharge of waste from a plant or other source into the environment.
An early stage of the development of the unborn offspring in which cell differentiation proceeds rapidly along with the formation of the major organs. In humans this stage occurs from about 3 weeks until 8-9 weeks after conception.
The harmful effects of a substance on the developing embryo.
The fate of a substance following its release into the environment. It includes the movement and persistence of the substance.
A protein which serves as a catalyst for chemical reactions in cells.
The increase in levels of an enzyme as the result of stimulation by another chemical substance.
A substance which causes a decrease in levels of an enzyme.
Environmental Protection Agency. A federal agency responsible for regulation of most chemicals that can enter the environment. The EPA administers the following acts: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liabilities Act (CERCLA) ( Superfund Act).
The study of the relative characteristics of exposed and nonexposed human populations for the purpose of detecting harmful effects.
The outer layer of the skin.
A process whereby substances (or metabolites) are eliminated from the body.
Contact with a foreign substance, usually by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.
The analysis or estimation of the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposures to an agent.
The amount of a substance in the environment to which a person is subjected.
The initial parent generation in a multi-generation reproduction study.
The first filial generation (offspring) in a multi-generation reproduction study. It is produced by breeding individuals of the F0 generation.
The second filial generation (offspring) in a multi-generation reproduction study. It is produced by breeding individuals of the F1 generation.
Food And Drug Administration. A federal agency responsible for the safety evaluation of drugs, cosmetics, food additives, and medical devices.
An extremely minute quantity, 1x10-15 gram.
The unborn offspring in the postembryonic period, after major structures have been outlined. In humans this occurs from 8-9 weeks after conception until birth.
The formation of scar tissue in an organ, generally by replacement of functional organ cells by non-functional fibrous tissue.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. A federal law, administered by the EPA, to evaluate and register pesticides.
The smallest subunit of a chromosome that contains a genetic message.
A change in the DNA sequence within a gene.
Toxic effects that result from damage to DNA and altered genetic expression.
see genetic toxicity.
Reproductive cells which give rise to sperm or ova.
The highly vascular structure in the kidney where much of the fluid portion of the blood (serum) is filtered and passes into the kidney tubules, carrying with it toxins and many other materials present in the serum.